Introductions: Exodus

Raik Heckl I, II. The article shows, that the stories of the Patriarchs as well as the Exodus-story are allochthonous traditions of origin. We find comparable stories in the neighboring cultures of Israel. Egypt as origin of human culture was of utmost importance in the Levant. Herodotus reports a myth of origin of the Phoenicians which is of particular interest in this respect. As far as it can be seen there are affinities between this tradition and the Exodus motif from the Hebrew Bible.

Ancient Jewish History: Who Were the Hebrews?

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So significant was the event about to take place that the Lord commanded Israel “Some years ago it was fashionable to date the Exodus to the fifteenth century​.

By subscribing I accept the terms of use. Politics Diaspora Opinion. The Exodus: Does archaeology have a say? The Exodus is so fundamental to us and our Jewish sources that it is embarrassing that there is no evidence outside of the Bible to support it. So we prefer not to talk about it, and hate to be asked about it. Subscribe for our daily newsletter. Hot Opinion. Israel-UAE deal, who’s to thank and what will it lead to? Most Read.

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Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence

According to biblical tradition, the Hebrews are peoples descended from Shem, one of Noah’s sons, through Eber, the eponymous ancestor, and Abraham. As yet, not all of the names of eponymous ancestors in the family lines can be identified, 1 but some probabilities are listed in Chart 6. It becomes clear that if “Hebrews” are descendants of Eber, then others besides those of Abraham’s line would be included see Gen.

Read Gen. The summons to leave his ancestral home and journey to Canaan is accompanied by a promise Gen. The promise has two parts: nationhood and divine blessing or protection.

Joseph to such high status and the exact date of the Exodus. No doubt that if there were a significant number of Hebrews and Israelites in Egypt and then there.

The Passover narrative is one of the greatest stories ever told. More than any other biblical account, the escape of the enslaved Hebrews from Egypt is the foundational story of the Jewish faith and identity, one that all Jews are commanded to pass on from generation to generation. Also, it never happened. For decades now, most researchers have agreed that there is no evidence to suggest that the Exodus narrative reflects a specific historical event.

Rather, it is an origin myth for the Jewish people that has been constructed, redacted, written and rewritten over centuries to include multiple layers of traditions, experiences and memories from a host of different sources and periods. Peeling back those layers and attempting to interpret them with the help of archaeology and biblical scholarship can reveal a lot about the actual history of the early Israelites, probably more than a literal reading of the Passover story.

Before digging for these kernels of historical truth, you might be wondering whence the assertion that the story of a large group of Hebrew slaves fleeing Egypt for the Promised Land is a myth. Egypt was here. Scholars have long been arguing about the date of the Exodus, but for the biblical chronology to hold any water, Moses must have led the Israelites out of Egypt sometime in the Late Bronze Age, between the 15th and 13th century B.

Also, Israel is littered with remains from the Egyptian occupation, from a mighty fortress in Jaffa to a bit of sphinx discovered at Hazor in So, even if a large group of people had managed to flee the Nile Delta and reach Sinai, they would still have had to face the full might of Egypt on the rest of their journey and upon reaching the Promised Land.

The fact that the biblical account is anachronistic, not historical, is also suggested by archaeological exploration of identifiable sites mentioned in the Bible.

Orthodox union

Bibliotheca Sacra Cited with permission. The Date of the Exodus Reexamined.

The date and nature of the Exodus have been subjects of scholarly debate A major stumbling block is that there is no mention of Israelites in Egypt or of an.

James K. Hoffmeier, Professor of Old Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, informing me of his soon-to-be published article on the date of the Exodus. His email was prompted by a post in which I wrote that Hoffmeier accepted the 15th-century date for the Exodus. In his email, Prof. Hoffmeier said that he had not taken a definite position on the date of the Exodus, but that his forthcoming article would clarify his position on this topic which has been the focus of intense scholarly debate.

In this post, I want to summarize the arguments Prof. Hoffmeier presents for the date of the Exodus. Then, I will give my view of his argument and on the date of the Exodus. Those who follow a higher chronology say that the Exodus occurred in the 15th century, that is, B. Those who follow a lower chronology believe that the Exodus occurred in the 13th century, that is, B.

Both dates are based on biblical information. The 13th-century date for the Exodus has been considered by many to be one of the evidences that a person is theologically liberal and that one accepts biblical criticism.


Exodus is not only the name of a book in the Old Testament but a momentous event for the Hebrew people—their departure from Egypt. Unfortunately, there is no easy answer as to when it occurred. Although there can be a chronology within the framework of a fictional story or myth, dating the events is generally impossible. To have a historical date, normally an event must be real; therefore the question must be asked as to whether or not the Exodus actually happened.

Some believe the Exodus never took place because there is no physical or literary proof beyond the Bible.

Can we get to a difficult area and get a very important interview? He wrote a book on the OT and he held the early date of the Exodus.

Click images to enlarge. I discovered the above eclipse while working on the below automated calendar. Interestingly, 3. See, Rev. The date of the Exodus is hotly contested among students of chronology, for once this date is secured then all dates reaching back to the Creation can be ascertained. In my own study of bible numbers, I use the date that is recognized by the majority of modern bible-believing scholars i. But I hasten to add that for some of the patterns using the numbers in the bible this question is irrelevant because many of the patterns exist irregardless of their exact date in history.

Many patterns are internally present within the text itself, as such they are not contingent upon establishing their exact dates in pre-Israelite history. Using the max chronology, this means that from then Flood till Abraham’s birth are again years, and then more till the Exodus, and then more till Solomon’s temple 1Kgs. From Noah’s birth till From building of the ark till..

From Flood till

When Did the Exodus Happen?

As past chapters have shown, the Lord has often influenced history in such a way that it becomes in and of itself symbolically significant. Joseph, who was sold into Egypt, provided a type or symbol of Christ and His ministry see Reading These chapters of Exodus contain one of the grandest and most profound of all historical types.

Did the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt under the leadership of Stay up to date each week with top articles, blogs, news, videos, and more. and people to piece together evidence for six key Exodus-related events.

The author contends that the most important event in Jewish history has been occupying the wrong slot in the accepted archaeological timeline. Stand and see the deliverance of Hashem which he shall do for you this day. For as you have seen Egypt this, day, never will you see it again. The Exodus from Egypt was not only the seminal event in the history of the Jewish People, but was an unprecedented and unequaled catastrophe for Egypt.

The drowning of the Egyptian armed forces in the Red Sea left Egypt open and vulnerable to foreign invasions. From the days of Flavius Josephus c. They have had little luck. In this year, the greatest warlord Egypt ever knew, Thutmose III, deposed his aunt Hatshepsut and embarked on a series of conquests, extending the Egyptian sphere of influence and tribute over Israel and Syria and crossing the Euphrates into Mesopotamia itself.

While it is interesting that this date actually saw the death of an Egyptian ruler — and there have been those who tried to identify Queen Hatshepsut as the Pharaoh of the Exodus — the power and prosperity of Egypt at this time is hard to square with the biblical account of the Exodus. Some historians have been attracted by the name of the store-city Raamses built by the Israelites before the Exodus.

And as in the case of Thutmose III, the Egyptian records make it clear that nothing even remotely resembling the Exodus happened anywhere near his time of history. We appear to be at a standstill.

The Biblical Exodus… Fairytale or Historical Fact? (by David Rohl)

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